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8 papers found

Paper 7 -- Measurement And Prediction Of Dynamic Density

This paper describes results of a multi-year, multi-organizational research initiative related to the measurement and prediction of sector level complexity called Dynamic Density (DD). The researchers first identified a number of candidate DD measures. They then identified eighteen 30-minute traffic samples from each of four selected en route Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs). At each ARTCC, they collected complexity ratings at two-minute intervals for each traffic sample from approximately 70 air traffic controllers and supervisors. Using the traffic and sector data, various DD variables were computed. Using a linear regression method, the relationships between different DD variables and complexity ratings were determined. A unified DD metric composed of variables from several organizations performed the best. The results indicated that DD represents instantaneous sector complexity better than aircraft count, which is the currently used method. The results also indicated that the prediction of complexity using DD is somewhat better than the prediction using aircraft count most likely due to the inherent inaccuracy of predicting aircraft count.
Theme: Metrics and Performance Management
Posted by: Parimal Kopardekar / Other authors: Sherri Magyarits

Paper 19 -- Human-In-The-Loop Evaluation Of A Multi-Strategy Traffic Management Decision Support Capability

Traffic flow management (TFM) in the U.S. is the process by which the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), with the participation of airspace users, seeks to balance the capacity of airspace and airport resources with the demand for these resources. This is a difficult process, complicated by the presence of severe weather or unusually high demand. Actions to manage demand are themselves complex, and interact in difficult-to-predict ways. Decision support tools could assist traffic managers in choosing actions to solve resource allocation problems while keeping delay at manageable levels.Such tools must have the capability to evaluate the impact of the multiple, different flow management strategies commonly used in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) today. MITRE and the FAA are developing a TFM Integrated Impact Assessment (IIA) capability in which a traffic manager can specify any combination of reroutes (for avoidance of severe weather or congested airspace) and miles-in-trail (MIT) spacing restrictions. The capability predicts the sector load impact and the imposed delays due to the combined strategy, and allows the traffic manager to adjust reroute and MIT restriction parameters to improve the proposed solution.This paper provides an introduction to the features of this capability as implemented in an experimental prototype, and a detailed report on the operational evaluation activities  including a human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiment using NAS traffic managers  that have been done to develop the concept-of-use and functional requirements for this capability. This work is in Technology Readiness Level category B, as defined in the Call For Papers for this seminar.
Theme: Decision Support
Posted by: Craig Wanke / Other authors: Norma Taber, Shane Miller, Celesta Ball, Lynne Fellman

Paper 24 -- A General Approach To Equity In Traffic Flow Management And Its Application To Mitigating Exemption Bias In Ground Delay Programs

A primary objective of the FAA's ATM functions is to provide fair and equitable access to the National Air Space. Traditionally, the FAA has interpreted fairness as prioritizing flights on a first-come, first-served basis. The allocation procedures introduced under Collaborative Decision Making (CDM), however, represent a departure from this paradigm: allocations are based on carriers original flight schedules. Yet in spite of these changes, the concept of fairness under CDM is largely left implicit in the procedures. Different and even conflicting concepts are sometimes used to describe these procedures. Moreover, the achievement of equitable allocations is often complicated by practical considerations. This paper describes a general framework for equitable allocation procedures within the context of ATM, and illustrates its use in reducing certain systematic biases that exist under current procedures. We also discuss other applications of this approach, and summarize practical considerations and implementation issues.
Theme: Traffic Flow Optimisation
Posted by: Michael Ball / Other authors: Thomas Vossen, Robert Hoffman, Mike Wambsganss

Paper 57 -- The Impact Of Voice, Data Link, And Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments On Flight Deck Procedures

A simulation was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traf-fic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment. The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influ-ence of time pressure. Results indicated that for messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarifica-tion for voice messages in the mixed environment and review log use for data link messages. Thus, when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.
Theme: Human Factors
Posted by: Sandra Lozito / Other authors: Lynne Martin, Melisa Dunbar, Alison McGann, Savita Verma

Paper 67 -- Multi-Agent Situation Awareness Error Evolution In Accident Risk Modelling

A mathematical model is presented for the evolution of situation awareness within the context of human performance modelling in accident risk assessment for ATM. Various aspects of situation awareness are defined within a group of agents, such as human operators and technical systems. Application of the model is illustrated for an accident risk assessment of an active runway crossing operation.
Theme: Safety
Posted by: Sybert Stroeve / Other authors: Henk Blom, Marco Van

Paper 76 -- Reducing Severe Weather Delays In Congested Airspace With Weather Decision Support For Tactical Air Traffic Management

Reducing congested airspace delays due to thunderstorms has become a major objective of the FAA due to the recent growth in convective delays. In 2000 and 2001-01, the key new initiative for reducing these convective weather delays was strategic traffic flow management (TFM) at time scales between 2 and 6 hours in advance using collaborative weather forecasts and routing strategy development. This "strategic" approach experienced difficulties in a large fraction of the weather events because it was not possible to forecast convective storm impacts on routes and capacities accurately enough to accomplish effective traffic flow management. Hence, we proposed in 2001 that there needed to be much greater emphasis on tactical air traffic management at time scales where it would be possible to generate much more accurate convective weather forecasts.In this paper, we describe initial operational results in the very highly congested Great Lakes and Northeast Corridors using weather products from the ongoing Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) concept exploration. Key new capabilities provided by this system include very high update rates (to support tactical air traffic control), much improved echo-tops information, and fully automatic 2-hour convective forecasts using the latest scale separation storm tracking technologies. Displays were provided at major terminal areas, en route centers in the corridors, and the FAA Command Center. Substantial reduction in delays has been achieved mostly through weather product usage at the shorter time scales. Quantifying the achieved benefits for this class of products have raised major questions about the conceptual framework for traffic flow management in these congested corridors that must be addressed in the development of air traffic management systems to utilize the weather products.
Theme: Weather and Environment
Posted by: James Evans / Other authors: Michael Robinson, Bradley Crowe, Diana Klingle-Wilson, Shawn Allan

Paper 85 -- A Phased Approach To Increase Airport Capacity Through Safe Reduction Of Existing Wake Turbulence Constraints

This paper outlines the operational issues involved in using knowledge of wake turbulence behavior to develop candidate terminal approach procedures that would increase arrival capacity at a variety of United States airports. Later procedures build incrementally on the experience that would be gained with these initial procedures. The process by which the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) have been analyzing these candidate procedures will be discussed. This process is part of the TOTOoader effort to implement an FAA/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wake Turbulence Research Management Plan (RMP).Two candidate procedures, and their operational variations, are described in detail, along with expected capacity benefits at selected airports. The analysis methodology is described. The first procedure is a near-term proposed change to the 2500 foot separation minimum for dependent approaches to two parallel runways. The second procedure is a mid-term proposed change to reduce wake constraints for departures from parallel runways spaced closer than 2500 feet using a short-term prognosis of crosswinds at and near the area of aircraft rotation. Activities, such as additional wake data collection at a field site, that are planned during the current year to advance towards the specific design and implementation of the procedures are also TOTOiefly outlined.
Theme: Airport Management
Posted by: Wayne Cooper / Other authors: Steven Lang, Anand Mundra, Clark Lunsford, Jeffrey Tittsworth

Paper 99 -- Free Maneuvering, Trajectory Negotiation, And Self-Spacing Concepts In Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

A simulation of integrated air and ground operations was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center to evaluate three Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) Concept Elements  En Route Free Maneuvering (CE 5), En Route Trajectory Negotiation (CE 6), and Terminal Arrival Self-Spacing (CE 11). Controller participants managed simulated traffic using Center Terminal Radar Control (TRACON) Automation System tools [1] while commercial pilot participants flew aircraft simulators equipped with a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) that had conflict detection and resolution and required time of arrival capabilities. Data were collected from twelve simulation runs to compare our current implementation of DAG-TM en route and terminal concepts against baseline conditions that approximated current day operations. Results suggested that potential improvements in efficiency and capacity may be gained without compromising safety or significantly increasing workload in the two en route conditions.
Theme: Air Ground Cooperation
Posted by: Paul Lee / Other authors: Nancy Smith, Joey Mercer, Vernol Battiste, Walter Johnson

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