This study investigated the procedures on three closely spaced parallel runways using a high fidelity flight simulator. The operational concept under study aimed to achieve visual meteorological capacities under instrument meteorological conditions when landing aircraft on runways as close as 750 ft apart. The purpose of the study was to investigate procedures related to breakout maneuvers for triple parallel runways flying in an echelon formation. Two-thirds of the data collection runs had an off-nominal situation, which was manipulated as an independent variable. The off-nominal situation was either the wake of the lead aircraft drifting too close to the center or trailing aircraft or the lead aircraft deviating from its course and blundering towards the center and trailing aircraft. The location of the off-nominal situation (high/low altitude) and the position of the ownship (center or right runway) were also manipulated as independent variables. Results showed that the workload and situational demands experienced by pilots were higher in the off-nominal as compared to the nominal scenario. Neither cause of breakout, location of breakout, nor position of ownship had a significant impact on workload or situation awareness. Analysis of the objective flight data indicated that the pilots flew the breakout maneuvers across all conditions and scenarios accurately and safely, similar to the previous two runway study. The results also provide an assessment of the procedures for breakout maneuvers during off-nominal conditions.
Theme: Innovative ATM Concepts
Keywords: Simultaneous Approaches, VCSPR, breakout procedures, off-nominal situations, triple approaches
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